Unit 4: Modeling and Using Tools (MP4 and MP5)

# 4.2.3 High School

By high school, students use modeling as a process of choosing appropriate mathematics and statistics to aid understanding, analyze empirical situations, and improve decisions.

Mathematical modeling is a form of problem solving. A mathematical model should be mathematically accurate and portray a situation in the real world. Modeling considers solutions in terms of the situation that spawned the mathematical problem. A student might use geometry to solve a design problem or use a function to describe how one quantity of interest depends on another.

At the high school level, teachers are expected to provide opportunities that allow students to examine how multiple representations support different ways of thinking about and manipulating mathematical objects. Students need an opportunity to practice converting among different representations for a given situation to create flexibility with modeling. These opportunities should emphasize selection of a certain representation for a mathematical situation based on what information the representation needs to convey."

Christinson, et al., 2012

**Examples of Grades 9–12 Modeling Activities**

The problems below represent Level 3 modeling tasks: