Unit 3: Reasoning and Explaining (MP2 and MP3)

# 3.2.5 Levels of Explanation: Include All Students

Many students need additional supports when presented with the tasks of explaining and justifying. Consider the recommendations below to engage all students as they develop their mathematics reasoning skills:

**English learners:**

“Instructional recommendations for teaching the Common Core to English learners include a focus on English learner’s mathematical reasoning; a shift to focus on mathematical discourse practices, moving away from simplified views of language, and support for English learners as they engage to complex mathematical language” (Moschkovich, 2012).

“Scaffolding should be provided through the use of multiple representations including choice of texts and tools (dictionaries, glossaries), teaching of key vocabulary, visual representations, models, strategic questioning, and coaching” (Santos, et al., 2012).

“Classroom environments that make ample use of the multiple modes — pictures, diagrams, presentations, written explanations, and gestures — afford English learners the means first to understand the mathematics with which they are engaged and second to express the thinking behind their reasoning and problem solving” (Driscoll, et. al. 2012).

**Students receiving special education services:**

“... strategies support student engagement by presenting information in multiple ways and allowing for students to access and express what they know in a variety of ways” (McNulty & Gloeckler, 2011).

“... a scientifically valid framework for guiding educational practice that provides flexibility in the ways information is presented, in the ways that students respond or demonstrate knowledge and skills, and in the ways students are engaged” (CCSS Initiative, 2010).

In your Metacognitive Journal, consider how the work with explanations presented in this unit intersects with the recommendations for English learners and students receiving special education services.

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