Chronological and Spatial Thinking, Grades 6–8
1. Students explain how major events are related to one another in time.
Historical Interpretation, Grades 6–8
2. Students understand and distinguish cause, effect, sequence, and correlation in historical events, including the long- and short-term causal relations.
3. Students explain the sources of historical continuity and how the combination of ideas and events explains the emergence of new patterns.
Chronological and Spatial Thinking, Grades 9–12
2. Students analyze how change happens at different rates at different times; understand that some aspects can change while others remain the same; and understand that change is complicated and affects not only technology and politics but also values and beliefs.
Historical Interpretation, Grades 9–12
1. Students show the connections, causal and otherwise, between particular historical events and larger social, economic, and political trends and developments.
2. Students recognize the complexity of historical causes and effects, including the limitations on determining cause and effect.