1. Teach essential content knowledge so students can master critical concepts.
    1. The authors of these recommendations join E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Daniel Willingham and others who find that teaching content does indeed, improve informational literacy particularly when instructional routines support students' understanding of content area vocabulary, concepts, and facts. This also reinforces the importance of teaching the full breadth of content area curriculum including history/social studies, science, and technical subjects.