1. Set and maintain high standards for text, conversation, questions, and vocabulary.
    1. The CCSS place an increased emphasis on text complexity and academic language.
    2. CCSS Reading Standard 4 and Language Standards 4 and 5 encourage teachers to help students acquire and understand new vocabulary within the context of the text rather than teaching words in isolation. Teacher-led think-alouds and conversations about text and vocabulary can strengthen students' ability to look to the clues found in text to discover meaning of new words. The Vocabulary Collection Form can be helpful in guiding students' thinking and serve as a place to collect and keep new words close at hand.
    3. As mentioned in the Fisher and Frey article, effectively written text-dependent questions can be used to guide students to closely read the text and meet CCSS Reading Standards. Additionally focus questions, emphasized in CCSS Writing Standard 7, can guide inquiry-based instruction and students' research activities.
    4. The stakes are high especially for students who struggle the most. ELs, struggling readers, and students with special needs will be challenged with increased emphasis on informational text and expository writing. It is important that teachers make wise decisions in using evidenced-based instructional techniques to meet the specific learning needs of students. The California English Language Development Standards call for instructional approaches for English learners that vary greatly depending on the language proficiency level of students. Students with special needs require strategies and approaches that are differentiated to meet individual learning needs.