1. Increase the amount and quality of open, sustained discussion of reading content.
    1. Frequent teacher-led and small group discussions of text allow for students to analyze what they have read, think critically, stretch students' thinking and improve students' conceptual understanding and learning. These small group discussions also contribute to building communication skills and provide opportunities for acquiring and utilizing academic vocabulary; an especially important skill for ELs.
    2. The CCSS Speaking and Listening Standards 1–3 encourage such collaborative conversations based on text.