Constructed-response methods prompt students to generate a text or numerical response in order to collect evidence about their knowledge or understanding of a given assessment target. Constructed response items can be both short and extended. Short constructed response items may require test takers to enter a single word, phrase, sentence, number, or set of numbers, whereas extended constructed-response items require more elaborated answers and explanations of reasoning. These kinds of constructed response items allow students to demonstrate their use of complex thinking skills.