Recall from Table 1 that 50% of the students answered Item 1a (multiple-choice) correctly, while only 20% were able to explain their thinking in Item 1b (constructed-response). What learning need can you identify? What might this imply about instruction?
Students need to learn how to explain the thinking behind their answers to math problems. Instruction is needed to associate oral and written language with math problem solving to deepen student understanding of the algorithms.