Principle III Provide Multiple Means of Engagement
- Provide multiple opportunities for recruiting student interest. Instruction that allows choice for students provides a vehicle for increasing student interest and student self-advocacy. Students may not have a voice in the content that must be covered; however, if they have a choice in the method of representation and expression their level of engagement may increase. Teachers must also provide for a safe learning environment and provide opportunities for students to build connections and make learning relevant through authentic activities.
- Provide multiple opportunities for sustaining student engagement. Teachers can use a variety of strategies for maintaining and sustaining students’ interest. For example, they can refocus students on their goals, they can vary the demand of the activity or content through differentiation, or they can emphasize the process in the activity and not necessarily the outcome. By using mastery-orientated feedback, the teacher focuses on the task and the process, not on the end product. This method promotes perseverance and mastery and helps to sustain the student through the task. An additional strategy, peer collaboration and communication, fosters student independence and allows for built-in support of the student.
- Provide multiple opportunities for self-regulation. Helping students to develop self-regulatory skills is essential to the development of an independent learner. UDL seeks to address both the extrinsic features of learning and instruction (e.g., varying representation, multiple means of expression) and the intrinsic elements of student learning. UDL expects that students set realistic goals for themselves which they believe they can achieve. Teachers need to design systems of support that allow for the students to meet those goals. This can take the form of positive behavior supports, reflective feedback, and self-reinforcements for time on task. Structures and strategies customized for the student should also be built-in to help students recognize their progress and to alleviate discouragement.