Principle II: Provide Multiple Means of Action and Expression
- Provide opportunities for physical activity. Recent brain learning research tells us that physical activity is an essential for learning. This is of particular importance for students who may have physical disabilities that may impede their movement or participation in an activity. It is important to intentionally design and structure instructional practices that allow for a multitude of physical responses. This could be the use of a tablet device to turn pages or the use of an activation switch. Students need to be given the support to use and navigate tools that assist them in instruction. Other options may include the rate of response, duration of an activity, or the length of time given for a response.
- Provide multiple opportunities for different means of communication and expression. There are numerous tools and methods that allow for a wide variety of both receptive and expressive communication. Allowing students to use a variety of multi-media tools for expressing themselves may take the form of film making, audio tapes, animation, drawings, the use of social media, etc. The use of scaffolding at varying levels of support can assist the student in graduating to higher levels of fluency and greater independence in learning. The more instructional strategies are expanded to allow for multiple expressions of learning, the more likely students with disabilities will be able to successfully display knowledge.
- Provide multiple opportunities for executive functioning. Executive functioning is responsible for decision making, initiating action, and planning. Many students with disabilities have difficulty with executive functioning and as a result do not finish their work, complete projects, or mismanage their time. By providing structures that facilitate goal setting, planning, managing information and resources, and monitoring progress, teachers can assist students in creating executive functioning strategies to help them succeed.